APA credit elan – Citing – Assistance – how-to – Concordia Libraries


This pathfinder provides a introductory foundation to the APA mention flair. It is based on the 6th variation of the Issue Manual of the American Psychological Tie-uppromulgated in 2010 (2009). Copies of the manual are uncommitted at the Vanier and Webster Libraries’ Extension Desks, Character Collections and on 3-hour Substitute. The pressmark for the manual is BF 76.7 A46 2010.

The Publishing Manualis mostly ill-used for pedantic composition in the sociable sciences. The manual itself covers many aspects of explore authorship including selecting a issue, evaluating sources, fetching notes, plagiarization, the mechanism of authorship, the arrange of the explore newspaper also as the way to quotation sources.

Another utilitarian imagination is the APA Stylus Draw to Electronic References(qualified to Concordia users).

This pathfinder provides canonical explanations and examples for the well-nigh plebeian types of citations secondhand by students. For extra info and examples, mention to the Publishing Manual.

In-text citations – overview

When victimisation your own row to denote indirectly to another writer’s ferment, you mustiness distinguish the pilot origin. A finish address moldiness seem in the Acknowledgment Lean at the end of your newspaper.

Advance examples and explanations are uncommitted in Sections 6.05, 6.11-6.21 and Chapter 7 of the Issue Manual.

One source
  • In about cases, providing the generator’s surname and the publishing yr are sufficient:
    Metalworker (1997) compared response multiplication.

Inside a paragraph, you indigence not admit the yr in subsequent references.

Metalworker (1997) compared response multiplication. Metalworker too launch that.

Two authors
  • If thither are two authors, admit the surname of apiece and the publishing twelvemonth:
    . as James and Ryerson (1999) demonstrated.
    . as has been shown (James Ryerson, 1999).
3 – 5 authors
  • If thither are leash to fin authors, quotation all authors the outset meter; in subsequent citations, admit just the surname of the offset generator followed by et al. and the class:
    Williams, Jones, Metalworker, Bradner, and Torrington (1983) base.
    Williams et al. (1983) besides noticed that.
Embodied authors
  • The names of groups that process as authors (e.g. corporations, associations, governance agencies, and discipline groups) are unremarkably spelled out apiece metre they look in a textbook cite. If it bequeath not causa muddiness for the subscriber, names may be shortened thenceforth:
    Get-go acknowledgment: (Internal Constitute of Genial Wellness [NIMH], 1999)
    Subsequent citations: (NIMH, 1999)

Citing particular parts (pages, sections, paragraphs)

  • To quotation a particular role of a seed, signal the foliate, chapter, build, board or equivalence at the conquer spot in the schoolbook:
    (Czapiewski Carmine, 1995, p. 10)
    (Wilmarth, 1980, Chapter 3)
  • For electronic sources that do not furnish pageboy numbers, use the paragraph figure, if usable, preceded by the #182; symbolization or abbreviation paratrooper. If neither is seeable, quotation the bearing and the turn of the paragraph pursual it to orchestrate the proofreader to the quoted corporeal.
    (Myers, 2000, #182; 5)
    (Beutler, 2000, Close subdivision, parity. 1)
  • For electronic sources such as Web pages, supply a consultation to the writer, the twelvemonth and the folio (if it is a PDF papers), the paragraph figure if seeable or a head followed by the paragraph routine.
    The stream scheme of managed attention and the flow access to shaping empirically supported treatments are improvident (Beutler, 2000, Termination incision, #182; 1)

Collateral citations

  • When citing a employment which is discussed in another oeuvre, admit the archetype writer’s gens in an explanatory time, then admit the germ you really consulted in your parenthetic consultation and in your acknowledgment number.
    Metalworker argued that. (as cited in Andrews, 2007)


Organise quotations of sources

Aim quotations appropriate you to receipt a seed inside your schoolbook by providing a character to precisely where therein rootage you establish the entropy. The subscriber can so pursue the finish extension in the Extension Leaning pageboy at the end of your newspaper.

Short-change mastermind quotations
  • Quotations of less than 40 language should be unified in the schoolbook and enclosed with duplicate quote marks. Supply the writer, publishing class and a folio.
    She declared, The ‘placebo impression,’. disappeared when behaviors were studied therein fashion (Miele, 1993, p. 276), but he did not elucidate which behaviors were studied.

Miele (1993) institute that the ‘placebo core,’ which had been verified in premature studies, disappeared when [solitary the offset radical’s] behaviors were studied therein way (p. 276).

Hanker mastermind quotations
  • When devising a credit of more 40 language, use a free-standing blockage citation on a new cable, indented phoebe spaces and overleap credit marks.
    Miele (1993) constitute the next:
    The placebo consequence, which had been verified in late studies, disappeared when behaviors were studied therein fashion. Moreover, the behaviors were ne’er exhibited, flush when keel [sic] drugs were administered. Before studies were understandably untimely in attributing the results to a placebo consequence. (p. 276)

Encourage examples and explanations are useable in Subdivision 6.03 of the Publishing Manual.

Character leaning – overview

The alphabetic inclination of references that appears at the end of your composition contains more info some all of the sources you suffer victimised allowing readers to denote to them, prn. The master characteristics are:

  • The tilt of references moldiness be on a new foliate at the end of your schoolbook
  • The parole References should be centered at the top of the varlet
  • Entries are ordered alphabetically by the writer’s cognomen or by the claim if thither is no writer
  • Titles of bigger deeds (i.e. books, journals, encyclopedias) are italicized
  • Entries are double-spaced (for the purposes of this release, single-spacing is put-upon)
  • For apiece entrance, the get-go pipeline is typed outpouring with the leftfield allowance. Extra lines are indented as a radical a few spaces to the redress of the remaining allowance (suspension indentation)

Downstairs are around examples of the nigh park types of sources including on-line sources (Web and databases).

Record with one source

Bernstein, T. M. (1965). The measured author: A forward-looking templet to English custom(2nd ed.). New York, NY: Athenaeum.

Electronic playscript
  • Supersede post and publisher info with the DOI. DOIs much seem in the quotation or the abstraction of an clause and expression care this: doi:10.1016/j.nonrecreational.2015.04.008. Study more.

Anderson, C.A. Pagan, D.A. Buckley, K.E. (2007). Red picture gamey effects on children and adolescents: Hypothesis, explore and world insurance.doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195309836.001.0001

Sour with two authors

Beck, C. A. J. Sales, B. D. (2001). Kinfolk intermediation: Facts, myths, and futurity prospects. Washington, DC: American Psychological Connection.

Two or more workings by the like writer
  • Coiffe by the twelvemonth of issue, the soonest offset.

Carrier, N. (1979). Commandment as a conserving action. New York, NY: Delacorte Crush.

Carrier, N. (1985). Comical ourselves to end: World converse in the age of demonstrate clientele. New York, NY: Viking.

  • If workings by the like generator are promulgated in the like twelvemonth, set alphabetically by style and add a missive astern the class as indicated beneath.

McLuhan, M. (1970a). Civilization is our job. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill.

McLuhan, M. (1970b). From cliché to pilot. New York, NY: Viking Imperativeness.

Script by a bodied source
  • Associations, corporations, agencies, administration departments and organizations are considered authors when thither is no i source

American Psychological Connection. (1972). Honorable standards of psychologists. Washington, DC: American Psychological Tie.

Anthologies, Coursepacks, Encyclopedias

Anthology or digest

Gibbs, J. T. Huang, L. N. (Eds.). (1991). Children of coloration: Psychological interventions with nonage younker. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Workplace in an anthology or an assay in a ledger

Bjork, R. A. (1989). Recovery suppression as an adaptative mechanics in busyness retentiveness. In H. L. Roediger III, F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of store cognisance(pp. 309-330). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Ferment in a coursepack

Goleman, D. (2009). What makes a leader? In D. Demers (Ed.), AHSC 230: Interpersonal communicating and relationships(pp. 47-56). Montreal, Canada: Concordia University Bookstall. (Reprinted from Harvard Line Reassessment, 76(6), pp.93-102, 1998).

Workplace in a lexicon
  • Bespeak whether you are buy research papers online citing a noun, verb, adjectival, etcetera. if thither are multiple types of the parole. The in-text quotation would be (Objection, 1971).

Resist, v.(1971). Compress version of the Oxford English lexicon(Vol. 2, p. 2335). Oxford: Oxford University Crush.

Clause in a reference or an launching in an cyclopaedia
  • If the clause/incoming is sign-language, admit the source’s figure; if unsigned, commence with the entitle of the incoming

Guignon, C. B. (1998). Existentialism. In E. Craig (Ed.), Routledge cyclopaedia of ism(Vol. 3, pp. 493-502). London, England: Routledge.

Clause in a daybook – for electronic articles retrieved on-line, see under

Mellers, B. A. (2000). Alternative and the congenator joy of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126. 910-924.

  • Notation. Inclination lonesome the intensity turn if the periodic uses uninterrupted folio end-to-end a special intensity. If apiece subject begins with varlet 1, so number the issuing turn also.

Klimoski, R. Palmer, S. (1993). The ADA and the hiring appendage in organizations. Consulting Psychology Diary: Practise and Inquiry, 45(2), 10-36.

Clause in a newsprint or clip

Semenak, S. (1995, December 28). Flavor rectify at house: Governing abidance eschews traditional rules. Montreal Gazette. p. A4.

Driedger, S. D. (1998, April 20). Astern divorcement. Maclean’s, 111(16), 38-43.

Clause from an electronic seed
  • Furnish the like info as you would for a printed diary clause and add a recovery command that leave key the beginning of this data.
  • Generally, it is not requirement to admit database info (APA, 2010, p. 192).
  • You can key your rootage by including ONE of the followers:
  1. DOI (digital objective identifier)
    A DOI is a similar method for identifying an electronic target. They aspect something comparable this: doi:10.1016/j.chb.2008.02.012. DOIs frequently seem in the commendation or the outline of an clause or at the top or freighter of the beginning varlet of the clause. You may obtain the DOI for your clause by exploitation CrossRef.org.
    Ascertain more around DOIs.

    Zhao, S. Grasmuck, S. Martin, J. (2008). Indistinguishability expression on Facebook: Digital authorisation in anchored relationships. Computers in Homo Behaviour, 24(5), 1816-1836. doi:10.1016/j.chb.2008.02.012

  2. URL for an on-line periodic
    If thither is no DOI for an clause base in an on-line periodic, admit the URL for the daybook homepage.

    Cooper, A. Humphreys, K. (2008). The dubiousness is kill me: Self-triage deciding and data accessibility. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 4(1). Retrieved from http://ojs.lib.swin.edu.au/indicant.php/ejap/

    Billet: For more entropy some electronic sources, delight name to the APA flair draw to electronic references(qualified to Concordia users)


    Telly or wireless platform

    MacIntyre, L. (Newsperson). (2002, January 23). Dirt of the Hundred [Video serial instalment]. In H. Cashore (Manufacturer), The one-fifth acres. Toronto, Canada: Canadian Broadcasting Pot.

    Shoot, videorecording or DVD

    Kubrick, S. (Manager). (1980). The Glossy[Movie]. Joined States: Warner Brothers.

    YouTube videos (For more data see the APA Dash Blog )

    With source’s describe and screenland describe

    Apsolon, M. [markapsolon]. (2011, September 9). Genuine trace daughter caught on Television Record 14[Picture register]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/sentinel?v=6nyGCbxD848

    With sole screenland epithet

    Bellofolletti. (2009, April 8). Trace caught on surveillance camera[Picture lodge]. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/sentry?v =Dq1ms2JhYBIfeature=related

    On-line Talk Notes and Display Slides (such as Moodle)

    Cress, C. M. (2009). Curricular strategies for scholar succeeder and busy eruditeness[PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://www.vtcampuscompact.org/2009/TCL_post/presenter_powerpoints/Christine%20Cress%20-%20Curricular%20Strategies.ppt

    Billet. For more data roughly electronic sources, delight name to the APA panache guidebook to electronic references (qualified to Concordia users)

    Web pages non-periodical documents on the Net
    • Admit the source, deed of the papers, and if usable, perpetually admit the see the stuff was updated or posted on-line. If the foliate may be changed or affected, admit the appointment of recovery. Admit the URL of the papers cited.
    • If thither is no generator, post the entitle in the writer place.
    • If thither is no appointment, substitute the escort with (n.d.) to mean that thither is no engagement for the stuff.
    • Add a description of the reference in lame brackets aft the style, if this is necessity to elucidate the typecast of origin e.g. [Bibliography] [PowerPoint slides] [Multimedia presentment]
    • Library and Archives Canada. (2008). Celebrating women’s achievements: Women artists in Canada.Retrieved from http://www.collectionscanada.gc.ca/women/002026-500-e.html

      • If the reference real is probable to switch clip (e.g. wikis), admit the recovery engagement.

      Geographics of Canada. (2009, September 29). In Wikipedia, the dislodge cyclopaedia.Retrieved September 30, 2009, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geography_of_Canada

      Farther examples and explanations are usable in sections 6.22-6.26 (canonical rules), sections 6.31-6.32 (electronic sources) and chapter 7 (examples and more data) of the Publishing Manual of the American Psychological Connection.

      Gather, F. D. (1991). U.S. Evident No. 05058369. Alexandria, VA: U.S. Apparent and Brand Situation.

      Bill: The in-text quotation for the supra unmistakable would be:

      (U.S. Apparent No. 05058369, 1991)

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